In 2011, Commissioner for Police Anthony Wagambie took the unusual step of asking the public to report police asking for payments for performing their duties. Sometimes an important event, such as a legendary battle, is enacted at such a musical festival. Their social lives combine traditional religion with modern practices, including primary education.  The Supreme Commander of operations was the United States General Douglas MacArthur, with Australian General Thomas Blamey taking a direct role in planning and operations being essentially directed by staff at New Guinea Force headquarters in Port Moresby. The Neu Guinea Kompanie paid for the local governmental institutions directly, in return for the concessions which had been awarded to it.  The offensives in Papua and New Guinea of 1943–44 were the single largest series of connected operations ever mounted by the Australian armed forces. There are approximately 2,000 Muslims in the country. Various nations from Oceania, including Australia and New Zealand, immediately sent aid to the country. Papua New Guinea's National Vision 2050 was adopted in 2009. The southern half of the country had been colonised in 1884 by the United Kingdom as British New Guinea. , The PNG legislature has enacted laws in which a type of tenure called "customary land title" is recognised, meaning that the traditional lands of the indigenous peoples have some legal basis to inalienable tenure. In other regions, the bride price is paid in lengths of shell money, pigs, cassowaries or cash. , Exploration of Mandated Territory of New Guinea, Ernest Alfred Shepherd, 'Akmana: A new name in the continuing story of New Guinea exploration' "Pacific Islands Monthly" April 1971 pp. The bitter Battle of Buna-Gona followed in which Australian and United States forces attacked the main Japanese beachheads in New Guinea, at Buna, Sanananda and Gona. Traders from Southeast Asia had visited New Guinea beginning 5,000 years ago to collect bird-of-paradise plumes.. Freehold title (also known as fee simple) can only be held by Papua New Guinean citizens. On 25 February 2018, an earthquake of magnitude 7.5 and depth of 35 kilometres struck the middle of Papua New Guinea. The mainland of the country is the eastern half of New Guinea island, where the largest towns are also located, including Port Moresby (capital) and Lae; other major islands within Papua New Guinea include New Ireland, New Britain, Manus and Bougainville. Rabaul, the capital of the Territory was overwhelmed on 22–23 January and was established as a major Japanese base from whence they landed on mainland New Guinea and advanced towards Port Moresby and Australia.  Most of the people still live in strong traditional social groups based on farming. World Bank. The origin of the Papua New Guinea tsunami that killed over 2100 people on 17 July 1998 has remained controversial, as dislocation sources based on the parent earthquake fail to model its extreme run–up amplitude. The other indigenous peoples are Austronesians, their ancestors having arrived in the region less than four thousand years ago. Botanically, New Guinea is considered part of Malesia, a floristic region that extends from the Malay Peninsula across Indonesia to New Guinea and the East Melanesian Islands.  The highest peak is Mount Wilhelm at 4,509 metres (14,793 ft). Mineral deposits, including gold, oil, and copper, account for 72% of export earnings. Non-traditional Christian churches and non-Christian religious groups are active throughout the country. In July 1988, a no-confidence vote toppled Wingti and brought to power Rabbie Namaliu, who a few weeks earlier had replaced Somare as leader of the Pangu Party. 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